The Edge of an Infinite Universe

  • Published: 03 April 2019
  • Have you ever asked “what is beyond the edge of the universe?” And have you ever been told that an infinite universe that has no edge? You were told wrong. In a sense. We can define a boundary to an infinite universe, at least mathematically. And it turns out that boundary may be as real or even more real than the universe it contains.

    Check out the new Space Time Merch Store!

    Support Space Time on Patreon

    #infinitity #edgeoftheuniverse #spacetime

    Learn More About Dark Energy Here:

    Hosted by Matt O'Dowd
    Written by Matt O'Dowd
    Graphics by Aaron Halevy
    Directing by Andrew Kornhaber

    Our universe may be infinite. In order to wrap our puny human minds around such a notion we like to come up with boundaries. For example we have the “observable universe” – that patch that we can see, and beyond which light has not yet had time to reach us. It’s boundary is called the particle horizon. Beyond it there exists at a minimum of thousands and possibly infinitely more regions just as large. Our observable universe is like a tiny patch of land in a vast plain. We define its horizon like we might build a little picket fence around our little patch – meaningless from the point of view of the plain, but it makes our patch feel more homey and us less crushingly insignificant.

    Special thanks to our Patreon Big Bang, Quasar and Hypernova Supporters:

    Big Bang:
    Anton Lifshits
    David Nicklas
    Fabrice Eap
    Juan Benet
    Justin Lloyd
    Tim Davis

    James Flowers
    Mark Rosenthal
    Tambe Barsbay
    Vinnie Falco

    chuck zegar
    Danton Spivey
    Donal Botkin
    Edmund Fokschaner
    Jens Theisen
    John Hofmann
    Jordan Young
    Joseph Salomone
    Mark Heising
    Matthew O'Connor

    Thanks to our Patreon Gamma Ray Burst Supporters:

    Alexey Eromenko
    Andreas Nautsch
    Antonio Ruiz
    Bradley Jenkins
    Brandon Labonte
    Buruk Aregawi
    Carlo Mogavero
    Daniel Lyons
    David Behtala
    David Crane
    David Schmidt
    Dustan Jones
    Geoffrey Short
    Greg Weiss
    Jack Frosch
    James Hughes
    James Quintero
    Jinal Doshi
    JJ Bagnell
    John Webber
    Jon Folks
    Joseph Emison
    Josh Thomas
    Kenneth F Leonard
    Kevin Warne
    Kyle Hofer
    Malte Ubl
    Mark Vasile
    Nathan Hitchings
    Nicholas Rose
    Nick Virtue
    Richard Broman
    Scott Gossett
    Sigurd Ruud Frivik
    Tim Crookham
    Tim Stephani
    Tommy Mogensen
    سلطان الخليفي

Comments • 3 846

  • Spider Mcgavenport
    Spider Mcgavenport  4 hours back

    What I've found fascinating, would be how linear our solar system is and why there's nothing below or above our planet(s) in our solar system. Everything has a x and y axis but out of every diagram of our solar system theres nothing (below or above) our planets or planetoids polar caps. Another that many solar systems are binary sun(s).

    • Robert Murphy
      Robert Murphy  16 hours back

      Me thinker hurts...

      • Rickey Harris
        Rickey Harris  1 days back

        misunderestimating compactification......Love this guy and how he quips so easily and has such an intellect...The fact I see so many high brow comments with a real sense of humor.... helps me believe we may actually make it off this rock before the next cycle....and have it known and mean something this time.

        • Jari Haukilahti
          Jari Haukilahti  1 days back

          So what are the physics on that cylinder wall and shouldnt the wall be everywhere all the time -and maybe i fell to sleep listen to this.

          • Wizbro
            Wizbro  1 days back

            I wish they had a different presenter.

            • Steve Lenores
              Steve Lenores  2 days back

              Boundaries are a human requirement. The universe is under no obligation to comply. There simply are always going to be mysteries beyond our understanding. Yet speculating on them keep mathematicians and physicists employed.

              • DR WOOTANGYEH
                DR WOOTANGYEH  2 days back

                The seven heavens are the space dimensions that are attempted to be so confusingly explained here, the question should be what is is the space between the dimensions and all around

                • Ellis K
                  Ellis K  2 days back

                  Get this clown off my youtube.

                  • Michael Lochlann
                    Michael Lochlann  3 days back

                    I used to think I was smart and then I watched this video.

                    • stackfl0w
                      stackfl0w  3 days back

                      aids space, got it lol

                      • SMS
                        SMS  4 days back

                        This is wild

                        • Wilhelm Von Wilsenheim

                          Mankind's unwillingness to come to terms with something undefinable is astounding. Why do we even need to find an edge to the universe? I doubt the sanity of these physicists, for they must have been inspired by science fiction and comics.

                          • Topsy Turvy
                            Topsy Turvy  6 days back

                            SHOW ME OUT! I WANT TO GET OUT OF IT 😆 !!!

                            • Anand Swami
                              Anand Swami  7 days back

                              Each universe has hyperbolic biverse combination wirh mathematical equation X^2 - Y^2=A^2 with lim. A¬0

                              • Gavin Rowley
                                Gavin Rowley  7 days back

                                aaahh. There's a Hawking radiation episode. I love this channel. I was just wondering how that defies everything summed up about black holes.

                                • The Alpaca Redstoner
                                  The Alpaca Redstoner  1 weeks back

                                  What if the ads spacetime is subspace?

                                  • Michael Te Miha
                                    Michael Te Miha  1 weeks back

                                    You are having a fat guess

                                    • TheSeaBast
                                      TheSeaBast  1 weeks back

                                      Woah, this seems a lot like Indra's net

                                      • Bob Taradão
                                        Bob Taradão  1 weeks back

                                        Just because you can represent something matematically does not mean that it exists in nature. To say there are boundaries in a infinite universe makes no sense to me.

                                        • Silent Psykosis
                                          Silent Psykosis  1 weeks back

                                          All these complicated theories just to try and argue against a paradox... Something which is infinite, by definition, cannot have an edge. There's a difference between indefinite and infinite even if our perception of both may be the same. People once upon a time looked out at the ocean in the same way.

                                          Besides, we can never really know if our universe is even infinite, to begin with. It's just thought to expand indefinitely and physicists call it infinite >.>

                                          • Michael Jetnikoff
                                            Michael Jetnikoff  1 weeks back

                                            Hi,the 8 breathes,hearthbreath,light curves higher dens,high refractive index,this uan1verse verse one verse in song of GOD GENSYS ORIGINUM DAYSIGNER,GENERAL GRAV CIRCLULARIZARTION,O,DUE TO DAYNAMARISM DUALITHRUM OF DENS,DIFFUSION,OR FISSION,DUSION,EINSTEIN WAS WARNED,NOT LET CRAZIES KNOW SO BURIED IN CURIOSNAUSS CAUNCENCE,FISSION,FUSION,DFUSN,DENSITHRUMBRESTH,ST/G OF THIS uan1verse,finit`as is sub fn of true infinit` thru 7 dgre freedom ,surface rel Pi (d/2)^3,vol fn D/2)^3,thus “E prop to area seen observer but not dep on being observed as dfrnt with,dfrnt perspactive,surface curved rhomboidal multumpla,as a 2d,(x^2),3D (x^3),sub function of true infinit,not reached if auxpansion,then not infinit,if smaller than << true infinit~,say this be (01*)^7,d,subfunction finit`,please caunsider,this true whether thee live or not ,thanx,bliss,XAMichael

                                            • BobsYourUncle5000
                                              BobsYourUncle5000  1 weeks back

                                              Brain asplode.

                                              • Dan Stewart
                                                Dan Stewart  1 weeks back

                                                I wonder who this guy thinks his audience is?

                                                • Dan Stewart
                                                  Dan Stewart  1 weeks back

                                                  Why does this guy characterize our existence as *_"crushingly"_* insignificant"? Is his ego so big that he must somehow feel important in the face of the entire universe? How about just grow up -- you're only important to your mommy.

                                                  • Soumyabrata hazra
                                                    Soumyabrata hazra  1 weeks back

                                                    Why people are doing so much funny comments in such good videos , I can't hold my laugh 😂😂😂😂😂

                                                    • In peace Alone
                                                      In peace Alone  2 weeks back

                                                      This guy is so much better of a host than the original/angry/overly egotisticaly serious host. That guy was annoying garbage, this guy is happy and much better than the other guy

                                                      • UFOlogyPRSS
                                                        UFOlogyPRSS  2 weeks back

                                                        Our past paradigm of analysis and conjecture through mathematical models seems contrary to the notion of how it works, which is experiential by design and backing into the appropriate model configuration. We continue to project our ideas upon something that has its own construct instead of observing how it works, not what it looks like, which is at least a slightly different perspective.

                                                        Equations and postulates are certainly part of developing understanding. It is the direction of that process that falls into question, imho. Why would you want to define boundaries on something that is limitless? That just seems counter-intuitive.

                                                        I'm really unclear and a bit under-qualified to assert, though I think it is a reasonable assertion, that modern models move beyond last century's models based on limited thinking. Sure the thinking was far beyond most of us, though models like the Trans-Dimensional Distinction Vorticular Paradigm need more attention.

                                                        I could be wrong, but the idea of consciousness was not included in any of last century's models. Any equations, imho, are remiss if the consideration is not considered. Consciousness, space and time are indeed tethered beyond our current level of comprehension, let alone inclusion in our consideration of activity toward sustainability.

                                                        • Sorlell Luke
                                                          Sorlell Luke  2 weeks back

                                                          God 21st century battalion I

                                                          • Hans de Ruiter
                                                            Hans de Ruiter  2 weeks back

                                                            You talk about the edge, How about time? The further we observe space the more we can we see into the past. Light emitted x millions years ago. If we keep going further in theory we can see the state of the universe after the big bang. So is there an edge of the observable space?

                                                            • Brian Dennington
                                                              Brian Dennington  2 weeks back

                                                              Got any flat earth theories?

                                                              • xFallenRagex
                                                                xFallenRagex  2 weeks back

                                                                Am i the only one that noticed the door chime from STNG when the hyperbolic surface popped up at 10:42?

                                                                • Andy Miron
                                                                  Andy Miron  2 weeks back

                                                                  Damn.. You scare me...

                                                                  • Andy Miron
                                                                    Andy Miron  2 weeks back

                                                                    Minoeons reply: Banananananananananana BanAman... :D

                                                                    • Andy Miron
                                                                      Andy Miron  2 weeks back

                                                                      You broke my Brain dude!!!!!

                                                                      • Thinking Ronin
                                                                        Thinking Ronin  2 weeks back

                                                                        I go back and forth between these PBS Spacetime videos and videos of drunk people falling down. What does that say about me?

                                                                        • NSW Despatch
                                                                          NSW Despatch  2 weeks back

                                                                          i just sitting here and pretended i understand every that he what is the out come????

                                                                          • RandomName Last Name
                                                                            RandomName Last Name  2 weeks back

                                                                            How long would the people-sized phase of the big rip last?

                                                                            • Low Huey Ing
                                                                              Low Huey Ing  2 weeks back

                                                                              i dont always get the content on first play, but his voice is so soothing, i could just 'listenonrepeat' and subconsciously building the schema while i work . So when i rewatch it with full attention, it helps to understand the topic better.

                                                                              • Gagan Ghansela
                                                                                Gagan Ghansela  2 weeks back

                                                                                He's speaking the language of GODs

                                                                                • Gagan Ghansela
                                                                                  Gagan Ghansela  2 weeks back

                                                                                  time to sleep ...

                                                                                  • G H
                                                                                    G H  2 weeks back

                                                                                    Well, duh

                                                                                    • ruatsanga white
                                                                                      ruatsanga white  2 weeks back

                                                                                      Universe is flat
                                                                                      Flat Earthers: breathing intensifies

                                                                                    • 21 TRUTH IS NOW! ALL IS NOW!!

                                                                                      And yes we do indeed live in flat space , sorte in the middle of an 8, its all electromagnetic and there are 2 different sides to the living aread in the center of the 8 the 2 true poles are located on each their side of it.... dont fear outer space its all inner space, other lands are here in the outer rings and inner, its like the tree of life, exactly like a tree, the tree makes more rings every circle of its life, new ring in our world means new lands and new beings, there are already older lands and kinds and there are also new lands and newer kinds of beings, all inside our flat expanding plane with its 2 opposite poles and side to X-plore / X-it :) Remember what ET's means, they are just the extra living being in the extra lands, the other lands are whats actually called space....

                                                                                      • selfless
                                                                                        selfless  3 weeks back

                                                                                        * watching the video with my morning coffee *
                                                                                        me: damn, i'm gonna need a much stronger coffee than this. probably some LSD as well.

                                                                                        • Augustus Sinclair
                                                                                          Augustus Sinclair  3 weeks back

                                                                                          Hmmm. Now do the video again, but for dummies.

                                                                                          • DRUNKEN RAMBLE
                                                                                            DRUNKEN RAMBLE  3 weeks back

                                                                                            This channel makes "How The Universe Works" look like Barney's Sing-A-Long.

                                                                                            • Larry Walsh
                                                                                              Larry Walsh  3 weeks back

                                                                                              ........ I think I'm gonna need to watch this more than once......

                                                                                              • Vytautas Grašys
                                                                                                Vytautas Grašys  3 weeks back

                                                                                                i feel like my brain is going to melt